What is "Calendered" - Definition & Explanation
Last Updated on: 26-Jan-2023 (8 months, 9 days ago)
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The term "Calendered" in the textile industry refers to a finishing process that involves passing fabric between heated rollers or cylinders under pressure. This process aims to improve the fabric's surface smoothness, luster, and overall appearance. Calendering has a long history and has been used for centuries to enhance the performance and aesthetic qualities of textiles.

History and Origin

The process of calendering can be traced back to ancient civilizations, where fabric was smoothed and polished using stone or wooden tools. However, the modern calendering process began to emerge during the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century. Initially, the calendering process was performed manually, but with advancements in technology, it became mechanized and more efficient.

Types of Calendering

Calendering can be classified into various types based on the desired effect and the characteristics of the fabric:

  1. Hot Calendering: In hot calendering, fabric passes through heated rollers, which can reach temperatures up to 200 degrees Celsius. This process helps to smooth the fabric surface, enhance its luster, and improve its drape. Hot calendering is often used for fabrics like cotton, linen, and synthetic blends.
  2. Emboss Calendering: Emboss calendering involves the use of engraved rollers to impart a pattern or texture onto the fabric surface. This process creates a three-dimensional effect, adding visual interest and enhancing the fabric's decorative appeal.
  3. Glazing: Glazing is a type of calendering that involves the application of a starch or resin-based finish on the fabric surface. This process creates a glossy or polished appearance and adds stiffness to the fabric, making it suitable for applications like tablecloths and curtains.
  4. Moire Calendering: Moire calendering is a specialized technique used to create a watermark-like pattern on the fabric surface. By passing the fabric through engraved rollers, a rippled or wavy effect is achieved, enhancing the fabric's visual appeal.

Tips in Handling Calendered Fabrics

When working with calendered fabrics, it is important to keep a few tips in mind to maintain their quality and appearance:

  1. Handle with Care: Calendered fabrics can be delicate, so it is essential to handle them gently to avoid creasing or damaging the smooth surface.
  2. Wash with Care: Follow the care instructions provided by the manufacturer when washing calendered fabrics. It is recommended to use a gentle cycle and avoid harsh detergents or bleach.
  3. Avoid Ironing: Calendered fabrics are already smooth and pressed, so ironing is usually unnecessary. If needed, use a low heat setting and a pressing cloth to protect the fabric.
  4. Store Properly: Store calendered fabrics in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight, to prevent discoloration or damage.

Top International Users and Manufacturers

Calendering is a widely adopted textile finishing process, and several top international users and manufacturers incorporate it into their product offerings. Here are some notable examples:

  1. Herms: Herms, a luxury fashion brand, utilizes calendering techniques in the production of their silk scarves. The process adds a smooth, lustrous finish to the fabric, enhancing the vibrancy of the printed designs.
  2. Armani: Armani, known for its high-end fashion and accessories, incorporates calendering in their suit fabrics. This process helps to achieve a sleek, polished appearance, contributing to the brand's sophisticated aesthetic.
  3. Brooks Brothers: Brooks Brothers, a renowned menswear brand, employs calendering on their dress shirts to create a crisp, wrinkle-resistant finish, ensuring a neat and professional look.
  4. Lenzing AG: Lenzing AG, a global textile company, offers calendered fabrics as part of their product portfolio. They specialize in various types of fibers, including natural and synthetic materials, to cater to different market demands.
  5. Albini Group: Albini Group, an Italian textile company, utilizes calendering techniques on their high-quality cotton fabrics. This enhances the fabric's smoothness, softness, and luster, ensuring a luxurious feel.
  6. Milliken & Company: Milliken & Company, a leading textile manufacturer, incorporates calendering in their technical fabrics for industrial applications. The process helps to improve the fabric's performance and durability, making it suitable for various demanding environments.


Calendering is a textile finishing process that has a rich history and continues to play a significant role in enhancing fabric qualities. Through various types of calendering techniques, fabrics can be transformed with improved surface smoothness, luster, and decorative effects. It is essential to handle calendered fabrics with care and follow proper maintenance guidelines to preserve their appearance and longevity. The adoption of calendering techniques by top international users and manufacturers further demonstrates its value and widespread application in the textile industry.

Calendered is a dry finish that creates a very smooth, lustrous fabric. There are many types of calendering which vary in permanence. All types involve passing the fabric through large heated rollers that flatten the yarn.
Calendered Finish
A smooth finish obtained by passing the fabric between heavy bowls of a calender, which results in the fabric being so flattened as to close the interstices between the yarns.

Some other terms

Some more terms:

Figure 47
Desirable changes in wood that provide interesting patterns at the surface. Examples are: flame, crotch (curl, Brit.), burl (burr, Brit.) , curly (tiger stripe, fiddle, fiddleback) and birdseye....
Shirt 241
A shirt is a sort of top, i.e. a piece of clothing for the trunk of the body. In the UK, it refers almost exclusively to what Americans call a dress shirt, i.e. a garment with a collar and a full...
Pill 47
A tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric, as a result of wear or continued friction or rubbing on the surface of the fabric. Occurs as a result of fibers loosening from the...
Glazed 43
Cotton fabrics such as chintz or tarlatan treated with starch, glue. paraffin, or shellac and run through a hot friction roller to give a high polish. These types are not durable in washing. Newer,...
A cotton yarn that has been carded but not combed. Carded yarns contain a wider range of fiber lengths and, as a result, are not as uniform or as strong as combed yarns. They are considerably cheaper...

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