What is "Calendered" - Definition & Explanation
Last Updated on: 10-Jun-2024 (1 month, 4 days ago)
Share on FacebookShare on Twitter

The term "Calendered" in the textile industry refers to a finishing process that involves passing fabric between heated rollers or cylinders under pressure. This process aims to improve the fabric's surface smoothness, luster, and overall appearance. Calendering has a long history and has been used for centuries to enhance the performance and aesthetic qualities of textiles.

History and Origin

The process of calendering can be traced back to ancient civilizations, where fabric was smoothed and polished using stone or wooden tools. However, the modern calendering process began to emerge during the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century. Initially, the calendering process was performed manually, but with advancements in technology, it became mechanized and more efficient.

Types of Calendering

Calendering can be classified into various types based on the desired effect and the characteristics of the fabric:

  1. Hot Calendering: In hot calendering, fabric passes through heated rollers, which can reach temperatures up to 200 degrees Celsius. This process helps to smooth the fabric surface, enhance its luster, and improve its drape. Hot calendering is often used for fabrics like cotton, linen, and synthetic blends.
  2. Emboss Calendering: Emboss calendering involves the use of engraved rollers to impart a pattern or texture onto the fabric surface. This process creates a three-dimensional effect, adding visual interest and enhancing the fabric's decorative appeal.
  3. Glazing: Glazing is a type of calendering that involves the application of a starch or resin-based finish on the fabric surface. This process creates a glossy or polished appearance and adds stiffness to the fabric, making it suitable for applications like tablecloths and curtains.
  4. Moire Calendering: Moire calendering is a specialized technique used to create a watermark-like pattern on the fabric surface. By passing the fabric through engraved rollers, a rippled or wavy effect is achieved, enhancing the fabric's visual appeal.

Tips in Handling Calendered Fabrics

When working with calendered fabrics, it is important to keep a few tips in mind to maintain their quality and appearance:

  1. Handle with Care: Calendered fabrics can be delicate, so it is essential to handle them gently to avoid creasing or damaging the smooth surface.
  2. Wash with Care: Follow the care instructions provided by the manufacturer when washing calendered fabrics. It is recommended to use a gentle cycle and avoid harsh detergents or bleach.
  3. Avoid Ironing: Calendered fabrics are already smooth and pressed, so ironing is usually unnecessary. If needed, use a low heat setting and a pressing cloth to protect the fabric.
  4. Store Properly: Store calendered fabrics in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight, to prevent discoloration or damage.

Top International Users and Manufacturers

Calendering is a widely adopted textile finishing process, and several top international users and manufacturers incorporate it into their product offerings. Here are some notable examples:

  1. Herms: Herms, a luxury fashion brand, utilizes calendering techniques in the production of their silk scarves. The process adds a smooth, lustrous finish to the fabric, enhancing the vibrancy of the printed designs.
  2. Armani: Armani, known for its high-end fashion and accessories, incorporates calendering in their suit fabrics. This process helps to achieve a sleek, polished appearance, contributing to the brand's sophisticated aesthetic.
  3. Brooks Brothers: Brooks Brothers, a renowned menswear brand, employs calendering on their dress shirts to create a crisp, wrinkle-resistant finish, ensuring a neat and professional look.
  4. Lenzing AG: Lenzing AG, a global textile company, offers calendered fabrics as part of their product portfolio. They specialize in various types of fibers, including natural and synthetic materials, to cater to different market demands.
  5. Albini Group: Albini Group, an Italian textile company, utilizes calendering techniques on their high-quality cotton fabrics. This enhances the fabric's smoothness, softness, and luster, ensuring a luxurious feel.
  6. Milliken & Company: Milliken & Company, a leading textile manufacturer, incorporates calendering in their technical fabrics for industrial applications. The process helps to improve the fabric's performance and durability, making it suitable for various demanding environments.


Calendering is a textile finishing process that has a rich history and continues to play a significant role in enhancing fabric qualities. Through various types of calendering techniques, fabrics can be transformed with improved surface smoothness, luster, and decorative effects. It is essential to handle calendered fabrics with care and follow proper maintenance guidelines to preserve their appearance and longevity. The adoption of calendering techniques by top international users and manufacturers further demonstrates its value and widespread application in the textile industry.

Calendered is a dry finish that creates a very smooth, lustrous fabric. There are many types of calendering which vary in permanence. All types involve passing the fabric through large heated rollers that flatten the yarn.

Some more terms:

Spot Weave

A woven construction in which patterns are built in at spaced intervals through the use of extra warp and/or extra fill yarns are placed in selected areas. These yarns are woven into the fabric by...

Read about Spot Weave

Alcohol, denatured

Solvent for shellac products, will not thin most other coatings. Can be dissolved in water for cleaning. Can be used in alcohol type stoves and chafing dishes. Ethanol is available as denatured...

Read about Alcohol, denatured


Ecru is a term used in textiles to describe a light beige or off-white color. The word "ecru" comes from the French word for "raw" or "unbleached," reflecting the natural, unbleached color of the...

Read about Ecru


The removal of dye from a fabric by rubbing. Crocking can be caused by insufficient dye penetration or fixation, the use of improper dyes or dyeing methods, or insufficient washing and treatment...

Read about Crocking

Setting Sail with Sailcloth: Exploring its Strength and Versatility

A strong canvas of cotton, linen, or nylon in a plain weave, sometimes with a crosswise rib. The weights vary, but most often the count is around 148 x 60. Able to withstand the elements (rain, wind...

Read about Sailcloth


Desirable changes in wood that provide interesting patterns at the surface. Examples are: flame, crotch (curl, Brit.), burl (burr, Brit.) , curly (tiger stripe, fiddle, fiddleback) and birdseye....

Read about Figure

Fujiette Fabric Explained: Why Itís Perfect for Activewear

Fujiette is a type of fabric that has gained popularity in recent years due to its unique properties and characteristics. It is a synthetic material that is made from a blend of polyester and spandex...

Read about Fujiette

Jet Dyeing Machine

a) A machine for dyeing fabric in rope form and in which the fabric is carried through a narrow throat by dye liquor circulated at high velocity. b) A machine for dyeing garments and in which the...

Read about Jet Dyeing Machine

Add a definition

Add a definition for a textile term that you know about! Send us an email & tell us:
  • The term you want to define
  • Its definition in 500 words or less
  • Attach an image if necessary.
  • Optionally, tell us about yourself in 200 words or less!

Companies for Calendered:

If you manufacture, distribute or otherwise deal in Calendered, please fill your company details below so that we can list your company for FREE! Send us the following details:
  • Company name
  • Company address
  • Attach a logo, if necessary.
  • Optionally, tell us about yourself in 200 words or less!

Did you know this fact? Biella, in the Piedmont region, is renowned for its high-quality wool and cashmere production.
(s) 2024 TextileGlossary.com Some rights reserved. • Sitemap