What is "Elastic Fabric" - Definition & Explanation
Last Updated on: 04-Feb-2023 (1 year, 4 months, 9 days ago)
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Elastic Fabric

Elastic fabric is a type of textile that exhibits stretchability and the ability to return to its original shape after being stretched. It is designed to provide comfort, flexibility, and ease of movement in various applications, ranging from sportswear and activewear to undergarments and medical garments. This comprehensive article explores the meaning, history, types, handling tips, and top international users/manufacturers of elastic fabric.

History and Origin

The concept of elastic fabrics dates back to ancient civilizations, where natural fibers with inherent elasticity, such as rubber, were used for various purposes. However, the development of modern elastic fabrics can be attributed to the invention of synthetic elastomers and elastic fibers in the 20th century. The introduction of materials like spandex (also known as Lycra or elastane) revolutionized the textile industry by providing stretch and recovery properties that were not achievable with traditional fibers alone.

Types of Elastic Fabrics

Elastic fabrics come in various types, each with its unique properties and applications. Here are some commonly used types:

  1. Knitted Elastic Fabrics: Knitted elastic fabrics are made by interlocking loops of yarn, providing excellent stretch and recovery. They are widely used in activewear, swimwear, and undergarments due to their flexibility and comfort.
  2. Woven Elastic Fabrics: Woven elastic fabrics are produced by interlacing warp and weft yarns. They offer less stretch than knitted fabrics but provide durability and shape retention. Woven elastic fabrics are commonly used in dress pants, suiting, and home textiles.
  3. Spacer Fabrics: Spacer fabrics consist of two outer layers connected by a middle layer of elastic fibers. They offer breathability, cushioning, and stretch, making them suitable for activewear, footwear, and medical applications.
  4. Power Mesh Fabrics: Power mesh fabrics are lightweight, breathable, and stretchable. They are commonly used as a supportive layer in lingerie, shapewear, and dancewear.
  5. Stretch Denim: Stretch denim is a blend of denim and elastane fibers, providing comfort and flexibility while retaining the classic denim appearance. It is widely used in jeans and casual wear.

Tips in Handling Elastic Fabric

Working with elastic fabric requires some special considerations to ensure proper handling and maintenance:

  • Pre-washing: It is recommended to pre-wash elastic fabric before cutting and sewing to remove any residual shrinkage and ensure proper fit.
  • Cutting: When cutting elastic fabric, it is advisable to use sharp fabric shears or a rotary cutter to achieve clean edges and prevent fraying.
  • Seam Allowance: Allow for a slightly larger seam allowance when sewing elastic fabric to accommodate its stretch and prevent the seams from popping or breaking.
  • Needle and Thread: Use a ballpoint or stretch needle along with a stretchable or polyester thread to prevent thread breakage and ensure proper stitching.
  • Elastic Application: Depending on the project, elastic may be used in waistbands, cuffs, or other areas. Measure and cut the elastic slightly shorter than the desired length to achieve a snug fit.
  • Finishing Techniques: Consider using techniques like zigzag stitching, serging, or using a coverstitch machine to finish seams and hems in elastic fabric for added durability and flexibility.

Top International Users and Manufacturers

Elastic fabric is widely utilized by numerous international brands across various industries. Here are some of the top users and manufacturers:

  1. Spanx: Spanx is a renowned brand specializing in shapewear and undergarments. They incorporate elastic fabrics extensively to provide shaping, support, and comfort.
  2. Under Armour: Under Armour, a popular sportswear brand, incorporates elastic fabrics in their activewear collections, offering athletes and fitness enthusiasts flexibility and freedom of movement.
  3. Victoria's Secret: Victoria's Secret utilizes elastic fabrics in their lingerie and swimwear lines, combining style and comfort for a seamless fit.
  4. Nike: Nike incorporates elastic fabrics in their sportswear and performance apparel, providing athletes with enhanced mobility and comfort during physical activities.
  5. Hanes: Hanes, a well-known apparel manufacturer, incorporates elastic fabrics in their underwear, tights, and socks, offering stretchability and optimal fit.
  6. Wolford: Wolford specializes in luxury legwear, lingerie, and knitwear. They incorporate elastic fabrics to create form-fitting garments that accentuate the body's contours.


Elastic fabric has significantly transformed the textile industry, offering unparalleled comfort, flexibility, and freedom of movement in various applications. From the ancient use of natural elastic materials to the development of modern synthetic elastomers, the evolution of elastic fabrics continues to drive innovation in sportswear, activewear, undergarments, and medical textiles. By understanding the different types of elastic fabrics, handling tips, and the top international users and manufacturers, one can appreciate the importance and versatility of this remarkable textile category.

Elastic Fabric
A textile fabric made from an elastomer either alone or in combination with other textile materials. At room temperature an elastic fabric will stretch under tension and will return quickly and forcibly to substantially its original dimensions and shape when tension is remocved. Elastic fabrics may be manufactured by weaving, braiding, knitting, or other processes.
Elastic Fabric
A fabric composed of fibers /yarns having very high young's modulus.Thus the fabric is characterized by very high extensibility on application of stress without any permanent deformation e.g. lycra.

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