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What are "Bast Fibres" - Definition & Explanation
Last Updated on: 27-Feb-2024 ( ago)
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Bast Fibres: The Time-Honoured Titans of Textiles


Bast fibres, extracted from the inner bark or 'phloem' of certain plant stems, have long been prized for their strength, durability, and versatility. Their usage in textiles dates back thousands of years, and in our environmentally-conscious era, they are increasingly appreciated for their ecological credentials.

The Journey of Bast Fibres

The cultivation and use of bast fibres predates recorded history. Fragments of linen, a bast fibre from flax plants, have been found in ancient dwellings, indicating that early civilizations understood and exploited the extraordinary properties of these fibres. Bast fibres were traditionally used to make cordage and woven into cloth, playing a crucial role in the evolution of human civilization.

Types of Bast Fibres

  • Flax: Known for its softness and strength, flax is commonly used to produce linen.
  • Hemp: Renowned for its durability, hemp is one of the oldest and most versatile bast fibres.
  • Jute: Jute, with its natural golden shine, is used in a range of textile products, including rugs and sacks.
  • Kenaf: Relatively new to the textile industry, kenaf is a promising bast fibre with potential uses in paper and fabric production.
  • Nettle: While not as widely used as other bast fibres, nettle has a rich history in textile production and is gaining renewed interest.

Tips for Handling Bast Fibres

  • Consider the specific characteristics of each type of bast fibre when deciding on the best processing and care methods.
  • Use gentler washing methods to preserve the fibres' natural texture and longevity.
  • Store bast fibre textiles in cool, dry places to prevent damage from humidity and sunlight.
  • Avoid harsh chemical treatments, which can degrade the fibres and diminish their natural beauty.

Major International Manufacturers and Users

  • FlexFil Techno: An India-based company, FlexFil Techno is a leading manufacturer of innovative, high-performance yarns from bast fibres such as flax and jute.
  • S.L. Williamson: A U.S.-based company, S.L. Williamson specializes in the production of high-quality hemp textiles.
  • Orsha Linen Mill: Based in Belarus, Orsha Linen Mill is one of the largest linen textile mills in Europe, processing flax to produce a range of linen textiles.
  • Jute Corporation of India: A government-owned entity, the Jute Corporation of India is a major player in the global jute industry, supporting farmers and supplying high-quality jute to manufacturers.
  • STI Group: An Italian-based company, STI Group utilizes kenaf fibres to produce a variety of products, including bio-composites and insulation materials.

Applications of Bast Fibres

  • Clothing: Bast fibres like flax and hemp are used to produce durable, breathable, and eco-friendly textiles for clothing.
  • Home Furnishings: Rugs, upholstery, and curtains made from jute and other bast fibres offer a combination of durability and rustic charm.
  • Industrial Textiles: The strength and versatility of bast fibres make them suitable for producing sacks, ropes, and other heavy-duty textiles.
  • Composite Materials: Bast fibres are increasingly being used to produce bio-composites, offering a sustainable alternative to synthetic materials in various industries.

Conclusion

Bast fibres represent a fascinating fusion of historical tradition and future potential. As we continue our journey towards sustainable living, the adaptability and ecological advantages of bast fibres will ensure they remain an integral part of the textile landscape.

Bast fiber
A natural fiber collected from the inner bark surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonic plants. Most bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, including flax, Jute, hemp and ramie, but can include wild plants as well. Fibers typically have higher tensil strength than others kinds and are therefore used for textiles like ropes, yarn, paper, composite materials and burlap. While labor intensive, its production is considered more eco-friendly than the production of artificial fibers which are petroleum based.
Bast Fibre
The woody inner core of the stalk, typically about 20-30% of the stalk. Bast fibres come in two varieties: primary, which are long in length and low in lignin content, and secondary which are medium lengths, higher in lignin when the plants are grown in less dense stands.

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