What is "Pique" - Definition & Explanation
Last Updated on: 30-May-2024 ( ago)
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Piqué: The Textile Revolution in Sportswear and Casual Fashion

Piqu in Textiles: A Timeless Fabric Woven Into the Fashion Fabric

The Origins and History of Piqu Fabric

Piqu, pronounced as pee-kay, is a weaving style traditionally used in the production of cotton fabric. The fabric is known for its distinctive, fine ribbing texture that sets it apart from other types of weave. The term pique is derived from the French word "piquer," which translates to "to quilt." It is believed to have originated in the mid-18th century in France.

Originally, piqu was used for white fabric only, often employed in creating intricate decorative quilts. However, by the early 20th century, piqu evolved to be used in clothing, particularly for tennis and golf attire. Ren Lacoste, a French tennis player, is credited with popularizing the piqu polo shirt in the 1920s. His design was revolutionary at the time, providing players with a more comfortable and functional alternative to the long-sleeved, button-down shirts commonly worn.

Types of Piqu Fabric

  • Cotton Piqu: The most common type, known for its breathability, and is mainly used in making polo shirts.
  • Waffle Piqu: Characterized by its small, repetitive, square patterns, resembling a waffle. Used in towels and bathrobes.
  • Birdseye Piqu: Features a fine diamond-shaped pattern and is used in dress shirts and golf shirts.
  • Honeycomb Piqu: Has a unique hexagonal pattern and is used in casual wear and sportswear.
  • Marcella Piqu: A stiffer form of piqu, often used in formal dress shirts and bibs for black tie events.

Tips for Handling Piqu Fabric

  • Always read the care label on piqu garments to determine the ideal washing temperature.
  • Turn garments inside out before washing to minimize wear on the outer surface.
  • Use mild detergents to retain the fabrics texture and color.
  • Avoid wringing piqu fabric; gently squeeze out water or use a towel to blot.
  • Iron at low to medium heat and avoid stretching the fabric while ironing.

Profiles of Major International Manufacturers or Users

  • Lacoste: A French company, Lacoste is synonymous with the piqu polo shirt. Founded by Ren Lacoste, the company has been a major player in popularizing piqu fabric worldwide.
  • Polo Ralph Lauren: An American company, Polo Ralph Lauren, is known for its classic piqu polo shirts. The brand has become iconic in preppy and American sportswear culture.
  • Fred Perry: A British brand, Fred Perry has made significant contributions to the popularity of piqu fabric through its polo shirts, which are a staple in British subcultures.
  • Tommy Hilfiger: Another American powerhouse in fashion, Tommy Hilfiger uses piqu fabric extensively in its polo shirts, contributing to the fabric's global recognition.
  • Loro Piana: An Italian luxury brand, Loro Piana, is renowned for its high-quality piqu fabric used in crafting exquisite polo shirts and casual wear.

Applications of Piqu Fabric

  • Polo Shirts: The most popular application, providing a mix of comfort and style.
  • Dress Shirts: Marcella piqu is often used in dress shirts for formal occasions.
  • Sportswear: Birdseye and honeycomb piqu are used in golf shirts and other sportswear due to their breathability.
  • Towels and Bathrobes: Waffle piqu is ideal for its absorbency and softness.
  • Bibs: Marcella piqu is traditionally used in bibs for black tie events.


In conclusion, the rich and vibrant history of piqu has played a significant role in the evolution of textiles and fashion. Originating as a unique weaving technique in 18th-century France, it has now become a staple in the wardrobes of many, particularly in the realm of sportswear and casual fashion. With its distinctive texture, breathability, and versatility, piqu has proven its timeless appeal. The fabric's prominent use by fashion powerhouses like Lacoste, Polo Ralph Lauren, Fred Perry, Tommy Hilfiger, and Loro Piana underscores its significance in the textile industry. As we continue to appreciate and utilize piqu, the fabric's future remains as bright as its past.

Pique is a type of fabric characterized by its raised or textured surface. It is a tightly woven fabric that features a pattern of small, raised, and often diamond-shaped ridges. The name pique comes from the French word "piquer," which means "to prick" or "to quilt," and refers to the fabric's unique weaving process.

Pique fabric is typically made from cotton or a cotton blend, and it is commonly used for a variety of garments, including polo shirts, dresses, skirts, and pants. It is also used for bedding, upholstery, and other home d?cor items.

The unique texture of pique fabric is created by a weaving process that involves using two sets of yarns. The first set, known as the warp, is tightly stretched across the loom, while the second set, known as the weft, is woven over and under the warp yarns to create the pattern of raised ridges. The weft yarns are often thicker than the warp yarns, which helps to create the distinctive texture of pique fabric.

Pique fabric can be produced in a range of patterns, including honeycomb, birdseye, and waffle. The honeycomb pattern is characterized by small, hexagonal shapes that are raised above the surface of the fabric. The birdseye pattern features small, circular shapes that are closely spaced together, while the waffle pattern creates a larger, more pronounced texture that resembles the shape of a waffle.

Pique fabric is valued for its durability and breathability, making it ideal for warm weather clothing. Its raised texture also makes it more absorbent than other types of cotton fabric, which can help to wick away moisture and keep the wearer cool and dry.

In addition to its functional properties, pique fabric is also popular for its aesthetic appeal. Its textured surface adds visual interest to garments and other items, and it can be produced in a range of colors and patterns to suit different tastes and styles.

Pique fabric can be cared for in the same way as other cotton fabrics, with machine washing and tumble drying recommended. It is important to avoid using high heat settings, as this can cause the fabric to shrink or lose its shape.

Overall, pique fabric is a versatile and durable textile that is valued for its unique texture and breathability. Its distinctive pattern of raised ridges creates a visually interesting surface that is both functional and stylish, making it a popular choice for a wide range of clothing and home d?cor items.
Cotton, rayon, or synthetic fabrics in a lengthwise rib, English crosswise rib or cord weave that creates a stiff, durable ribbed fabric with an embossed pattern produced by a double warp thread. Originally was a crosswise rib but now mostly a lengthwise rib and the same as bedford cord. Ribs are often filled to give a more pronounced wale (cord weave). Comes in medium to heavy weights and is generally made of combed face yarns and carded stuffer yarns. It is durable and launders well, but wrinkles badly unless given a wrinkle-free finish. It also comes in different patterns besides wales. Some of the patterns are birdseye (small diamond), waffle (small squares), honeycomb (like the design on honeycomb honey). When the fabric begins to wear out it wears at the corded areas first.

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